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Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Dry Eye Peer-Reviewed Literature

LipiFlow® Clinical Papers

Meibomian gland dysfunction patients with novel Sjögren’s syndrome biomarkers benefit significantly from a single vectored thermal pulsation procedure: a retrospective analysis, Epitropoulos AT, Goslin K, Bedi R, Blackie CA. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2017:11 Pages 701—706. DOI

Effectiveness of an eyelid thermal pulsation procedure to treat recalcitrant dry eye symptoms after laser vision correction, Schalhorn, CS. Schalhorn, JM, et al. Journal of Refractive Surgery. 2017 Jan 10; 33(1): 30-36. DOI: 10.3928/1081597X-20161006-05.

The Limitation of Applying Heat to the External Lid Surface: A Case of Recalcitrant Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Kenrick CJ, Alloo SS. Case Rep Ophthalmol. 2017 Jan 16;8(1):7-12. doi: 10.1159/000455087.

The sustained effect (12 months) of a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation procedure for meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye. Blackie, CA, Coleman, CA, Holland, EJ. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2016 July 10: 1385–1396. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S109663

Treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye symptoms with a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation: a review. Blackie C, Carlson AN, Korb DR Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. 2015 Jul;26(4):306-13.

Long-term (3-Year) effects of a single thermal pulsation system treatment on meibomian gland function and dry eye symptoms. Greiner JV. Eye & Contact Lens 2016;42:99-107 (Epub ahead of print July 28, 2015) PubMed PMID: 26222095.

Evaluation of an automated thermodynamic treatment (LipiFlow®) system for meibomian gland dysfunction: a prospective, randomized, observer-masked trial. Finis D, Hayajneh J, König C, et al Ocul Surf. 2014 Apr;12(2):146-54.

Meibomian gland dysfunction: a comparative study of modern treatments. Baumann A, Cochener B.. J Fr Ophthalmol 2014 Apr; 37(4)); 303-12. [Article in French]

Case report: a successful LipiFlow treatment of a single case of meibomian gland dysfunction and dropout. Korb DR, Blackie CA. Eye Contact Lens. 2013 May; 39(3);e1-3.

Long-term (12-month) improvement in meibomian gland function and reduced dry eye symptoms with a single thermal pulsation treatment. Greiner JV. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2013;41:524-530 (posted online December 14, 2012;6:43-52) doi:10.1111/ceo.12033. PubMed PMID:23145471.

A single LipiFlow® Thermal Pulsation System treatment improves meibomian gland function and reduces dry eye symptoms for 9 months. Greiner JV. Current Eye Res. 2012 Apr; 37(4): 272-8.

A new system, the LipiFlow, for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Lane SS, DuBiner HB, Epstein RJ, Ernest PH, Greiner JV, Hardten DR, Holland EJ, Lemp MA, McDonald JE 2nd, Silbert DI, Blackie CA, Stevens CA, Bedi R. Cornea. 2012; 31(4): 396­Cornea. 2010 Aug; 29(8):930-3. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e3181ca36d6.

A novel thermodynamic treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction. Friedland BR, Fleming CP, Curr Eye Res. 2011 Feb; 36(2); 79-87.

Restoration of meibomian gland functionality with novel thermodynamic treatment device-a case report. Korb DR, Blackie CA. Cornea. 2010 Aug; 29(8):930-3. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e3181ca36d6.

Blackie CA, Coleman CA, Holland EJ. The sustained effect (12 months) of a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation procedure for Meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye. Clin Ophthalmol.
2016;10:1385-96.

Blackie CA, Coleman CA, et al. A single vectored thermal pulsation treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction, increases mean comfortable contact lens wearing time by approximately 4 hours per day. Clin Ophthalmol. 2018 Jan; 12: 169-183.  

Hagen KB, Bedi R, Blackie CA and Christenson-Akagi K. Comparison of a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation procedure with a 3-month course of daily oral doxycycline for moderate-to-severe meibomian gland dysfunction. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2018; 12:161-168.  

Epitropoulos AT, Goslin K, Bedi R, Blackie CA. Meibomian gland dysfunction patients with novel Sjögren's syndrome biomarkers benefit significantly from a single vectored thermal pulsation procedure: a retrospective analysis. Clin Ophthalmol. 2017 Apr 13;11:701-706. 

Meibography

A review of meibography. Pult H, Nichols JJ. Optom Vis Sci. 2012; 89(5):E760-9.

Noncontact infrared meibography to document age-related changes of the meibomian glands in a normal population. Arita R, Itoh K, Inoue K, Amano S. Ophthalmology. 2008 May;115(5):911-5.

Proposed diagnostic criteria for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction. Arita R, Itoh K, Maeda S, Maeda K, Furuta A, Fukuoka S, Tomidokoro A, Amano S. Ophthalmology. 2009 Nov;116(11):2058-63.

Nichols KK, Hanlon SD, Nichols JJ. A murine model of characterizing glandular changes in obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction. ARVO 2014. Abstract #13-A0002. 

Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD)

Effect of Desiccating Stress on Mouse Meibomian Gland Function. Suhalim JL, Parfitt GJ, Xie YL, Paiva CSD, Pflugfelder, SC, Shah TN, Potma EO, Brown DJ, Jester, JV. 2014; 12(1):39-68.

Improving awareness, identification, and management of meibomian gland dysfunction. Foulks GN, Nichols KK, Bron AJ, Holland EJ, McDonald MB, Nelson JD. Ophthalmology. 2012 Oct; 119(10 Suppl):S1-12.

Distribution of aqueous-deficient and evaporative dry eye in a clinic-based patient cohort: a retrospective study. Lemp MA, Crews LA, Bron AJ, Foulks GN, Sullivan BD. Cornea. 2012; 31(5):472-8.

The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the subcommittee on the epidemiology of, and associated risk factors for, MGD. Schaumberg DA, Nichols JJ, Papas EB, Tong L, Uchino M, Nichols KK. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Mar 30; 52(4):1994-2005.

The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: executive summary. Nichols KK, Foulks GN, Bron AJ, Glasgow BJ, Dogru M, Tsubota K, Lemp MA, Sullivan DA. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 30; 52(4):1922-9.

Nonobvious Obstructive Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (NOMGD). Blackie CA, Korb DR, Knop E, Bedi R, Knop N, Holland EJ. Cornea 2010; 29(12); 1333-45.

Meibomian gland dysfunction and contact lens intolerance. Korb DR, Henriquez AS. J Am Optom Assoc. 1980; 51:243-251.

Nichols KK, Hanlon SD, Nichols JJ. A murine model of characterizing glandular changes in obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction. ARVO 2014. Abstract #13-A0002. 

Cochener, et al. Prevalence of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction at time of Cataract Surgery. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. 2017 Feb;44(2):144-8.  

Han KE, Yoon SC, Ahn JM, Nam SM, Stulting RD, Kim EK, et al. Evaluation of dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction after cataract surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014; 157(6): 1144-1150.

Yuli Park, Hyung Bin Hwang, Hyun Seung Kim Observation of Influence of Cataract Surgery on the Ocular Surface. PLoS ONE 11(10): e0152460. 
 

Meibomian Gland Evaluator (MGE)

Correlations among symptoms, signs, and clinical tests in evaporative-type dry eye disease caused by Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Cuevas M, González-García MJ, Castellanos E, Quispaya R, Parra Pde L, Fernández I, Calonge M. Curr Eye Res. 2012 Oct; 37(10):855-63.

Meibomian gland diagnostic expressibility: correlation with dry eye symptoms and gland location. Korb DR, Blackie CA. Cornea. 2008 Dec; 27(10): 1142-7.

Dry Eye and Tear Film Instability

Tear film stability: A review. Sweeney DF, Millar TJ, Raju SR. Exp Eye Res. 2013 Aug 22.

Symptoms, visual function, and mucin expression of eyes with tear film instability. Shimazaki-Den S, Dogru M, Higa K, Shimazaki J. Cornea. 2013; 32(9):1211-8.

The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: executive summary. Nichols KK, Foulks GN, Bron AJ, Glasgow BJ, Dogru M, Tsubota K, Lemp MA, Sullivan DA. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011; 52(4):1922-9.

Nichols JJ, Ziegler C, Mitchell GL and Nichols KK. Self-Reported Dry Eye Disease across Refractive Modalities. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2005; Junne; 46(6):1911-4.  

Gomes JA, Azar DT, Baudouin C, Efron N, Hirayma M, Horwath-Winter J, Kim T, Mehta JS, Messmer EM, Pepose J, Sangwan VS, Weiner AL, Wilson SE, Wolffsohn JS. TFOS DEWs II Iatrogenic Report. The Ocular Surface. 2017. 15: 511-538.  

Blinking, MGD and Lipid Layer Integrity

Effect of incomplete blinking on tear film stability. Hirota M, Uozato H, Kawamorita T, Shibata Y, Yamamoto S. Optom Vis Sci. 2013; 90(7):650-7.

Tear lipid layer deficiency associated with incomplete blinking: a case report. Kawashima M, Tsubota K. BMC Ophthalmol. 2013 Jul 16; 13:34.

Marx line: fluorescein staining line on the inner lid as indicator of meibomian gland function. Yamaguchi M, Kutsuna M, Uno T, Zheng X, Kodama T, Ohashi Y. AM J Ophthalmol. 2006 Apr; 141(4):669-75.

Wu H et al. The severity of the dry eye conditions in visual display terminal workers. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 21;9(8):e105575.

Interferometry for Tear Film Measurement

Correlation between quantitative measurements of tear film lipid layer thickness and meibomian gland loss in patients with obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction and normal controls. Eom Y, Lee JS, Kang SY, Kim HM, Song JS. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Jun;155(6):1104-1110.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2013.01.008. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Application of a novel interferometric method to investigate the relation between lipid layer thickness and tear film thinning. King-Smith PE, Hinel EA, Nichols JJ. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010; 51(5):2418-23.

The contribution of lipid layer movement to tear film thinning and breakup. King-Smith PE, Fink BA, Nichols JJ, Nichols KK, Braun RJ, McFadden GB. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009; 50(6):2747-56.

The relationship between dry eye symptoms and lipid layer thickness. Blackie CA, Solomon JD, Scaffidi RC, Greiner JV, Lemp MA, Korb DR. Cornea. 2009 Aug; 28(7):789-94. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e318191b870.

Warm Compresses and Cold Expression

The role of heat in rubbing and massage-related corneal deformation. McMonnies CW, Korb DR, Blackie CA. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2012; 35(4):148-54.

Meibomian gland therapeutic expression: quantifying the applied pressure and the limitation of resulting pain. Korb DR, Blackie CA. Eye Contact Lens. 2011 Sep; 37(5):298­-301. doi: 10.1097/ICL.0b013e31821bc7c5.

Warm compress induced visual degradation and Fischer-Schweitzer polygonal reflex. Solomon JD, Case CL, Greiner JV, Blackie CA, Herman JP, Korb DR. Optom Vis Sci. 2007 Jul; 84(7):580-7.

A new way to think about dry eye. Korb lecture on MGD available on korbmgd.com.

Uzunosmanoglu E, et al. Meibomian gland dysfunction in patients receiving long-term glaucoma medications. Cornea. 2016;
35(8):1112-1116.
Doi:10.1097/ico.0000000000000838 

Economics of Dry Eye

The economic burden of dry eye disease in the United States: a decision tree analysis. Yu J, Asche CV, Fairchild CJ. Cornea. 2011 Apr; 30(4):379-87. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0b013e3181f7f363.

The economic burden of dry eye: a conceptual framework and preliminary assessment. Reddy P, Grad O, Rajagopalan K. Cornea. 2004; 23(8) 751-61.

Current Training Materials References

2007 Report of the International Dry Eye WorkShop (DEWS) The Ocular Surface April 2007 Volume 5, Number 2

Arita R, Itoh K, Maeda S, et al. Comparison of the long-term effects of various topical antiglaucoma medications on meibomian glands. Cornea. 2012 Nov 31(11): 1229-34.

Asiedu K et al. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) Versus the Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness™ (SPEED): A Study of a Nonclinical Sample. Cornea. 2016;35:175-180 (3) Korb DR et al. Meibomian Gland Diagnostic Expressibility: Correlation With Dry Eye Symptoms and Gland Location. Cornea. 2008;27:1142-1147

Benito A, Perez, GM, Mirabet S, et al. Objective optical assessment of tear-film quality dynamics in normal and mildly symptomatic dry eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg 2011 37:1481.

Blackie CA, Korb DR. Recovery time of an optimally secreting meibomian gland. Cornea. 2009;28(3):293-297.

Borchman D, Foulks GN, Yappert MC, Milliner SE. Changes in Human Meibum Lipid Composition with Age Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:475– 482)

Cho YK, Kim MS. Dry eye after cataract surgery and associated intraoperative risk factors. Korean J Ophthalmol 2009;23(2):65-73.

Finis D et al. Evaluation of Lipid Layer Thickness Measurement of the Tear Film as a Diagnostic Tool for Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Cornea. 2013;32(12):1549-1553

Foulks GN, Nichols KK, Bron AJ, Holland EJ, et al. Improving awareness, identification, and management of meibomian gland dysfunction. Ophthalmology. 2012 Oct;119(10 Suppl):S1-12.

Gipson I K. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Oct;48(10):4390; 4391-8. The ocular surface: the challenge to enable and protect vision: the Friedenwald lecture. 

Gupta Prevalence of Meibomian Gland Atrophy in a Pediatric Population1 

Knop E, Knop N, Millar T, et al. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Subcommittee on Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathophysiology of the Meibomian Gland. IOVS, Special Issue 2011;52 (4)1938-78

Korb DR, Blackie CA. Meibomian gland diagnostic expressibility: correlation with dry eye symptoms and gland location. Cornea. 2008;27(10):1142-1147.

Machalińska A, et al. Comparison of Morphological and Functional Meibomian Gland Characteristics Between Daily Contact Lens Wearers and Nonwearers. Cornea. 2015 Sep: 34(9): 1098-104.

Market Scope 2016 Dry Eye Report

Mudgil P. Antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids at the ocular surface.Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Oct 14;55(11):7272-7.

Murakami DK, Blackie CA and Korb DR. The Prevalence of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in a Caucasian Clinical Population. ARVO abstract 2015

Napoli PE, Coronella F, Satta GM,et al. Evaluation of the adhesive properties of the cornea by means of optical coherence tomography in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction and lacrimal tear deficiency., PLoS One. 2014 Dec 23;9(12):e115762

Ngo W et al. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness Questionnaire™. Cornea. 2013;32:1204-1210

Seifart U, Strempel I. The dry eye and diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmologe 1994;91:235-9

Shamsheer RP and Arunachalam C. A Clinical Study of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Patients with Diabetes. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2015;22(4):462-466

Suhalim JL, Parfitt GJ, Xie Y, et al. Effect of desiccating stress on mouse meibomian gland function. Ocul Surf. 2014 Jan;12(1):59-68.

TFOS DEWs II Definition and Classification Report. Craig J P, Nichols K K, Akpek E K, Caffery B, Dua H S, Joo C K, Liu Z, Nelson J D, Nicolas J J, Tsubota , Stapleton F. Ocul Surf 2017 Jul; 15(3):276-283

TFOS DEWS II Introduction J.D. Nelson et al. / The Ocular Surface 15 (2017) 269 - 275

TFOS DEWS II Management and Therapy Report. Jones L

Tomlinson A et al. The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Diagnosis Subcommittee. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(4):2006-2047

Trattler WB, Reilly CD, Goldberg DF, et al. Cataract and dry eye: Prospective health assessment of cataract patients ocular surface study. Presented at ASCRS 2011, San Diego, CA.

Tutt R, Bradley A, Begley C, Thibos LN. Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes. IOVS 2000;41:4117

James S. Wolffsohn, FCOptom PhD et al, TFOS DEWS II Diagnostic Methodology report The Ocular Surface xxx (2017) 544-579 (TFOS_DEWS_II_Diagnostic_method.pdf)

Jung W, et al. Meibomian gland dysfunction and tear cytokines after cataract surgery according to preoperative meibomian gland status. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2016; 44: 555–562 doi: 10.1111/ceo.12744 (Meibomian gland dysfunction and tear cytokines after cataract surgery according to preoperative MG.pdf)

Maya Salomon-Ben Zeev et al, Diagnosis of dry eye disease and emerging technologies, Clin Ophthamol 2014; 8:581-590 (Diagnosis of dry eye disease and emerging technologies)

Nichols KK. The Ocular Surface and Successful Contact Lens Wear. Contact Lens Spectrum. 2014 (Contact Lens Spectrum - The Ocular Surface and Successful Contact Lens Wear.pdf)